A standardized, cumulative directory out of get across-physical fitness is computed for each and every blend of maternal tree and pollen donor, predicated on adult fruit lay, seed germination, and survivorship and you may growth of seedlings. Each types, mixed-model analysis off variance was applied to evaluate the effects off crossing therapy (repaired feeling; having maternal tree included as the a random impact) on percentage of hand-pollinated herbs function mature fruit, prices from seed products germination and you can seedling survivorship, seedling proportions within step 1 yr, and collective exercise. Multiple models was indeed tested having fun with ANOVA: (a) plus every providers, (b) excluding unbalanced services, allowing analysis out of communication terms, (c) minus selfing therapy (due to the fact maternal trees had been largely otherwise totally care about-incompatible), and you may (d) collection most of the inside-Sinharaja outcrossing treatments to check the outcome off within this- against. between-forest crossing. The outcome away from crossing length for each parameter are subsequent examined using linear otherwise quadratic regression studies, depending on the model of the connection. Finally, for each maternal tree, the effects regarding nearby-next-door neighbor and you may a lot of time-point mating was in fact projected courtesy https://www.datingranking.net/fr/rencontres-thai-fr indices of biparental inbreeding depression and outbreeding anxiety, respectively, according to cumulative physical fitness viewpoints.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: F2,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit set, respectively. Fruit set from the intermediate-distance cross-pollinations varied across maternal trees, but with one exception (nearest-neighbor treatment at Tree number 1) indicated optimal fruit set at an outcrossing range of ?2 km (distant neighbor treatment; Fig. 2b). All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect, but no maternal tree effect (Tables 2B and 3B). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was significant only when the selfed treatment was excluded (quadratic regression model: arcsin square root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; Fdos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.